The Risks of Hazard https://www.intermap.com/risks-of-hazard-blog A blog that shows the power of location-based solutions in the world of insurance underwriting & risk management. en-us Wed, 19 Sep 2018 15:29:58 GMT 2018-09-19T15:29:58Z en-us By the Numbers: A Closer Look at Risk Scoring https://www.intermap.com/risks-of-hazard-blog/2018/09/by-the-numbers-a-closer-look-at-risk-scoring <div class="hs-featured-image-wrapper"> <a href="https://www.intermap.com/risks-of-hazard-blog/2018/09/by-the-numbers-a-closer-look-at-risk-scoring" title="" class="hs-featured-image-link"> <img src="https://www.intermap.com/hs-fs/hub/395294/file-2511057490-png/Blog/2015-02-17_10_35_48-Risk_Scoring_-_Comparison_%282%29_%28Read-Only%29_[Compatibility_Mode]_-_Microsoft_Word.png" alt="2015-02-17_10_35_48-Risk_Scoring_-_Comparison_(2)_(Read-Only)_[Compatibility_Mode]_-_Microsoft_Word" class="hs-featured-image" style="width:auto !important; max-width:50%; float:left; margin:0 15px 15px 0;"> </a> </div> <p><a href="https://www.intermap.com/risks-of-hazard-blog/2015/02/risk-scoring-improves-underwriting-4-benefits">As previously discussed</a>, risk scoring is a powerful way to evaluate risk by including disparate and complex datasets, business rules, and experience — all prioritized and weighted — in an algorithm. While it’s not a new idea, it is underutilized. Therefore, I think it's worth looking at a few examples of how it's done. (Since it’s a vast subject, this post will concentrate on <a href="https://www.goinsitepro.com/custom-risk?hsCtaTracking=608161de-c3cc-474c-9c31-db88dfe4bbd7%7Cf05a1895-2af2-459f-8bb8-3727376b1a49">flood risk scoring</a>.)</p> <p><a href="https://www.intermap.com/risks-of-hazard-blog/2015/02/risk-scoring-improves-underwriting-4-benefits">As previously discussed</a>, risk scoring is a powerful way to evaluate risk by including disparate and complex datasets, business rules, and experience — all prioritized and weighted — in an algorithm. While it’s not a new idea, it is underutilized. Therefore, I think it's worth looking at a few examples of how it's done. (Since it’s a vast subject, this post will concentrate on <a href="https://www.goinsitepro.com/custom-risk?hsCtaTracking=608161de-c3cc-474c-9c31-db88dfe4bbd7%7Cf05a1895-2af2-459f-8bb8-3727376b1a49">flood risk scoring</a>.)</p> <p>The most common type of flood risk scoring is the combination of flood likelihood (return period) and depth. This combination of frequency and loss-driver information is possible for all perils, and offers greater insight for underwriting than just a zone assessment. The score is determined with a matrix of values, such as this:</p> <div style="text-align: center;"> <img src="https://www.intermap.com/hs-fs/hub/395294/file-2511057490-png/Blog/2015-02-17_10_35_48-Risk_Scoring_-_Comparison_(2)_(Read-Only)_[Compatibility_Mode]_-_Microsoft_Word.png" alt="2015-02-17_10_35_48-Risk_Scoring_-_Comparison_(2)_(Read-Only)_[Compatibility_Mode]_-_Microsoft_Word"> </div> <p>It is possible to incorporate more variables into a flood risk score, however. For example: <a href="http://www.riskmeter.com/">RiskMeter Online™</a> (from Core Logic) has a Flood Risk Score that is based on six variables: flood zone, terrain elevation, flood water elevation (static and dynamic), hydrology, and levees/dams; and it calculates a score from 1 – 100. Once a score is returned for a location, the user can apply business rules based on the score. The actual algorithm is proprietary, so users don't see how it is calculated.&nbsp;</p> <p>Since risk scoring is a way to incorporate experience and organizational priorities, it's very useful for an insurer or a broker to be able to devise the scoring algorithm themselves — including deciding what datasets to use, how to weight them, and how to assign scores to the output. Not only does this let users of a risk score leverage their own experience (and claims data), it ensures the factors that are particularly important to the types of properties they underwrite (or broke) are used fully, while less important data can be made less influential on the final score.&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="https://www.intermap.com/software/insitepro">InsitePro</a>®&nbsp;(from <a href="https://www.intermap.com/">Intermap Technologies</a>®), allows users to define the score that best fits their business needs, including choosing which factors to evaluate and how to evaluate them. Examples of variables that can be evaluated by InsitePro’s risk scoring include: local elevations (around a specified location), natural barrier detection between a location and water, (and most importantly) height above water and distance to water, and any other dataset a user needs to reference.</p> <p>Once risk scores are determined, they can be applied to subsequent datasets to create exposure, damage estimates, or pricing/rating output.</p> <p>Of course, having a risk score doesn’t predict the future of a location — we'll leave that to the fortune tellers and shamans of the world. But risk scoring does build efficiency and repeatability into complex evaluation processes. Communication about risks is simplified by distilling all the necessary information into a number, letter, or code that can immediately convey characteristics of the risk.</p> <p><a class="cta_button" href="https://www.intermap.com/cs/ci/?pg=52ae1a15-5d19-4ecc-a037-4c3728c2ee53&amp;pid=395294&amp;ecid=&amp;hseid=&amp;hsic="><img class="hs-cta-img " style="border-width: 0px; /*hs-extra-styles*/; " alt="Risk Sco" src="https://no-cache.hubspot.com/cta/default/395294/52ae1a15-5d19-4ecc-a037-4c3728c2ee53.png"></a></p> <img src="https://track.hubspot.com/__ptq.gif?a=395294&amp;k=14&amp;r=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.intermap.com%2Frisks-of-hazard-blog%2F2018%2F09%2Fby-the-numbers-a-closer-look-at-risk-scoring&amp;bu=https%253A%252F%252Fwww.intermap.com%252Frisks-of-hazard-blog&amp;bvt=rss" alt="" width="1" height="1" style="min-height:1px!important;width:1px!important;border-width:0!important;margin-top:0!important;margin-bottom:0!important;margin-right:0!important;margin-left:0!important;padding-top:0!important;padding-bottom:0!important;padding-right:0!important;padding-left:0!important; "> Insurance Underwriting Risk Management Flood Risk Risk Scoring Wed, 19 Sep 2018 14:00:00 GMT imaddox@intermap.com (Ivan Maddox) https://www.intermap.com/risks-of-hazard-blog/2018/09/by-the-numbers-a-closer-look-at-risk-scoring 2018-09-19T14:00:00Z Plug The Leak: Reduce Underwriting Leakage With Better Data https://www.intermap.com/risks-of-hazard-blog/mind-the-gap-reduce-underwriting-leakage-with-better-data <div class="hs-featured-image-wrapper"> <a href="https://www.intermap.com/risks-of-hazard-blog/mind-the-gap-reduce-underwriting-leakage-with-better-data" title="" class="hs-featured-image-link"> <img src="https://www.intermap.com/hs-fs/hub/395294/file-2351590928-jpg/Blog/Athenium_Photo.jpg" alt="Insurance Underwriting" class="hs-featured-image" style="width:auto !important; max-width:50%; float:left; margin:0 15px 15px 0;"> </a> </div> <p>Not only is insurance an industry that is based on a general inability to predict what is going to happen, it is a hyper-competitive industry in which the winners are those who can best predict the unknowable…or at least be less wrong than their competition. Insurance underwriting is the actual process of pricing what is unknowable, and is necessarily performed with rigorous processes underpinned with vast amounts of data. However, underwriting is never perfect, and the gap between actual underwriting and perfection is called<span>&nbsp;</span><strong><em>underwriting leakage</em>.</strong></p> <p>Not only is insurance an industry that is based on a general inability to predict what is going to happen, it is a hyper-competitive industry in which the winners are those who can best predict the unknowable…or at least be less wrong than their competition. Insurance underwriting is the actual process of pricing what is unknowable, and is necessarily performed with rigorous processes underpinned with vast amounts of data. However, underwriting is never perfect, and the gap between actual underwriting and perfection is called<span>&nbsp;</span><strong><em>underwriting leakage</em>.</strong></p> <p>Insurers everywhere aspire to reduce underwriting leakage to zero by continuously improving their processes and improving the quality and comprehensiveness of their data. Sound processes are simple (but complex!) requirements for a functioning — let alone successful — insurer. Improvements typically address the proper execution of established processes. Data, on the other hand, is what can truly differentiate among&nbsp;insurers. Actuarial, historical, qualitative, and natural catastrophe data can always be refined, expanded, or improved.</p> <p><strong><img src="https://www.intermap.com/hs-fs/hub/395294/file-2351590928-jpg/Blog/Athenium_Photo.jpg?width=559&amp;name=Athenium_Photo.jpg" alt="Insurance Underwriting" width="559" title="Insurance Underwriting" style="width: 559px; display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"></strong></p> <p><strong>The correlation between data quality and underwriting leakage is clear:</strong><span>&nbsp;</span>If an underwriter has access to better information, she will be better able to perform the alchemy of underwriting — converting risk to finance. If an insurance company has a better archive of information and better tools to access additional information (such as flood models for property insurers) than their rival, their leakage will be smaller and they will enjoy a competitive advantage by understanding specific risks better. Property insurers will realize better selection/anti-selection by pricing their selected properties aggressively, and leaving higher risk locations to their competition through anti-selection or high pricing. Underwriting leakage prevents insurers from building portfolios of risk that lead to good business results.</p> <p>Much of the data that insurers build their business upon is statistical, which means they need to manage uncertainty properly. In simplified terms,<strong><span>&nbsp;</span>uncertainty is expensive,</strong><span>&nbsp;</span>and someone always needs to pay for it. Underwriting leakage is a way to understand this cost of uncertainty, and reducing leakage is a way for insurers to not have to pay for it. Investments in better data, better models, and<span>&nbsp;</span><a href="https://www.intermap.com/software/insitepro">better tools</a><span>&nbsp;</span>to understand the data do reduce underwriting leakage, and are wise investments.</p> <p><a class="cta_button" href="https://www.intermap.com/cs/ci/?pg=f4018a2e-e60c-4994-9b39-c0670874076c&amp;pid=395294&amp;ecid=&amp;hseid=&amp;hsic="><img class="hs-cta-img " style="border-width: 0px; /*hs-extra-styles*/; " alt="Flood Protection Gap" src="https://no-cache.hubspot.com/cta/default/395294/f4018a2e-e60c-4994-9b39-c0670874076c.png"></a></p> <img src="https://track.hubspot.com/__ptq.gif?a=395294&amp;k=14&amp;r=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.intermap.com%2Frisks-of-hazard-blog%2Fmind-the-gap-reduce-underwriting-leakage-with-better-data&amp;bu=https%253A%252F%252Fwww.intermap.com%252Frisks-of-hazard-blog&amp;bvt=rss" alt="" width="1" height="1" style="min-height:1px!important;width:1px!important;border-width:0!important;margin-top:0!important;margin-bottom:0!important;margin-right:0!important;margin-left:0!important;padding-top:0!important;padding-bottom:0!important;padding-right:0!important;padding-left:0!important; "> Insurance Underwriting Risk Management Insurance Protection Gap Tue, 19 Jun 2018 22:03:34 GMT ivan@intermap.com (Ivan P. Maddox) https://www.intermap.com/risks-of-hazard-blog/mind-the-gap-reduce-underwriting-leakage-with-better-data 2018-06-19T22:03:34Z Is too big not enough? https://www.intermap.com/risks-of-hazard-blog/is-too-big-not-enough <div class="hs-featured-image-wrapper"> <a href="https://www.intermap.com/risks-of-hazard-blog/is-too-big-not-enough" title="" class="hs-featured-image-link"> <img src="https://www.intermap.com/hubfs/Blog/mlyn2038_hi-1.jpg" alt="mlyn2038_hi-1" class="hs-featured-image" style="width:auto !important; max-width:50%; float:left; margin:0 15px 15px 0;"> </a> </div> <p>President Trump signed a hurricane relief bill that includes $16 billion in debt relief for the embattled National Flood Insurance Program. The flood program has a Congress mandated debt ceiling of $30.4 billion, which it reached during Harvey, Irma, and Maria (HIM). This action will allow U.S. Treasury funding of the program.</p> <p><strong>Is help on the way?</strong></p> <p>Well, kind of. Premiums are on the rise as the search for actuarial solvency continues for the NFIP. You can read the entire Insurance Journal article from April 5th titled <a href="https://www.insurancejournal.com/news/national/2018/04/02/485019.htm">Federal Flood Insurance Average Premium to Rise 8%</a> but here is how it ends: ‘However the premium hikes are likely insufficient to keep the program from sinking into debt, according to a recent government report.’</p> <p><strong>What is being done currently –</strong></p> <p><img src="https://www.intermap.com/hs-fs/hubfs/Blog/mlyn2038_hi-1.jpg?width=449&amp;name=mlyn2038_hi-1.jpg" alt="mlyn2038_hi-1" width="449" style="width: 449px; display: block; margin: 0px auto;">President Trump signed a hurricane relief bill that includes $16 billion in debt relief for the embattled National Flood Insurance Program. The flood program has a Congress mandated debt ceiling of $30.4 billion, which it reached during Harvey, Irma, and Maria (HIM). This action will allow U.S. Treasury funding of the program.</p> <p><strong>Is help on the way?</strong></p> <p>Well, kind of. Premiums are on the rise as the search for actuarial solvency continues for the NFIP. You can read the entire Insurance Journal article from April 5th titled <a href="https://www.insurancejournal.com/news/national/2018/04/02/485019.htm">Federal Flood Insurance Average Premium to Rise 8%</a> but here is how it ends: ‘However the premium hikes are likely insufficient to keep the program from sinking into debt, according to a recent government report.’</p> <p><strong>What is being done currently –</strong></p> <ul> <li><span style="background-color: transparent;">Move to Privatize</span></li> <li>Congress has once again extended until July 31st funding for the NFIP.</li> <li>An article titled ‘State of Flood Insurance in the US’ sponsored by Carrier Management in March of this year is full of information regarding admitted carrier participation in the Private Flood market for both commercial and residential properties.</li> <li>This is a quote from this report: ‘At year end 2016, the admitted property casualty insurance carriers report nearly $358 million in direct premiums written across the United States. This equates to 9% of the market largely monopolized by NFIP, based upon NFIP direct premiums written as of March, 2017'.</li> </ul> <p style="text-align: center;"><img src="https://www.intermap.com/hs-fs/hubfs/Blog/Figure%202.jpg?width=329&amp;name=Figure%202.jpg" alt="Figure 2" width="329" style="width: 329px; margin: 0px auto; display: block;"><span style="font-size: 20px;"><em style="background-color: transparent; font-size: 11px;">Source:&nbsp;<a href="https://www.insurancejournal.com/research/app/uploads/2018/03/State-of-Flood-Insurance-RTVersion.pdf" style="background-color: transparent;">https://www.insurancejournal.com/research/app/uploads/2018/03/State-of-Flood-Insurance-RTVersion.pdf</a></em></span></p> <p><strong>Reinsurance</strong></p> <ul> <li>Financial facts from FEMA’s effort to offset losses:</li> <li>As of April 2, 2018, FEMA has paid over $8.6 billion in losses to policyholders as a result of Hurricane Harvey. Because FEMA purchased reinsurance in 2017, FEMA recovered $1.042 billion from its reinsurers.</li> <li>For 2018, continuing this practice of resiliency and protection against future flood losses, FEMA secured $1.46 billion in reinsurance to cover any qualifying flood losses in excess of $4 billion per event occurring in calendar year 2018.</li> <li>Under the 2018 reinsurance agreement, reinsurers agreed to indemnify FEMA for flood claims on an occurrence basis. The agreement is structured to cover 18.6 percent of losses between $4 billion and $6 billion, and 54.3 percent of losses between $6 billion and $8 billion. FEMA paid a total premium of $235 million for the coverage.&nbsp;<a href="https://www.fema.gov/">https://www.fema.gov/</a></li> </ul> <p><strong>Insurance Linked Securities (ILS Cat Bonds)</strong></p> <p>Insurance Journal reported in an April 5th article: <a href="https://www.insurancejournal.com/news/national/2018/04/05/485448.htm">‘FEMA to Issue First Catastrophe Bond for Flood Insurance Program’</a> as another attempt at more diversification of NFIP debt scheduled around mid-year. Here’s Roy Wright, <a href="https://www.fema.gov/news-release/2018/04/05/fema-statement-departure-roy-wright">ex director</a>* of the NFIP: ‘The NFIP requires a stronger financial framework built on expanding our portfolio of actuarially-priced policies. Transferring more of the risk burden to the private capital markets continues to be part of that strategy'.&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="https://www.fema.gov/">https://www.fema.gov/</a>&nbsp;<br>&nbsp;<br><strong>Will it be enough?</strong></p> <p>Even with the small but gallant diversification efforts being undertaken by FEMA,the reinsurance efforts yielded only about 12% cost effectiveness, and the Cat bond solution is yet to materialize. The private market option seems destined to offer more coverage (often at a better price point) and protect us from another multi-billion-dollar bailout of our tax dollars.</p> <p><a class="cta_button" href="https://www.intermap.com/cs/ci/?pg=e4dfde3f-03e1-45e9-bdb4-380f86a5e26a&amp;pid=395294&amp;ecid=&amp;hseid=&amp;hsic="><img class="hs-cta-img " style="border-width: 0px; /*hs-extra-styles*/; " alt="Getting the Most of New Analytics" src="https://no-cache.hubspot.com/cta/default/395294/e4dfde3f-03e1-45e9-bdb4-380f86a5e26a.png"></a></p> <img src="https://track.hubspot.com/__ptq.gif?a=395294&amp;k=14&amp;r=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.intermap.com%2Frisks-of-hazard-blog%2Fis-too-big-not-enough&amp;bu=https%253A%252F%252Fwww.intermap.com%252Frisks-of-hazard-blog&amp;bvt=rss" alt="" width="1" height="1" style="min-height:1px!important;width:1px!important;border-width:0!important;margin-top:0!important;margin-bottom:0!important;margin-right:0!important;margin-left:0!important;padding-top:0!important;padding-bottom:0!important;padding-right:0!important;padding-left:0!important; "> Flood Insurance Private Flood FEMA Wed, 16 May 2018 14:18:05 GMT braymor@intermap.com (Bill Raymor) https://www.intermap.com/risks-of-hazard-blog/is-too-big-not-enough 2018-05-16T14:18:05Z Flood Insurance Models Around the World https://www.intermap.com/risks-of-hazard-blog/flood/insurance/models/around/the/world <div class="hs-featured-image-wrapper"> <a href="https://www.intermap.com/risks-of-hazard-blog/flood/insurance/models/around/the/world" title="" class="hs-featured-image-link"> <img src="https://www.intermap.com/hs-fs/hub/395294/file-2128807513-jpg/Blog/insitepro_compare_chart.jpg" alt="insitepro_compare_chart" class="hs-featured-image" style="width:auto !important; max-width:50%; float:left; margin:0 15px 15px 0;"> </a> </div> <p>Flood poses risk to property and productivity on every continent, and most developed countries have flood insurance available to mitigate that risk.&nbsp;However, everywhere you go, the flood insurance market is different.</p> <p>There are four principle types of flood insurance models around the world, differentiated by who backs the insurance (government or private markets), and whether it’s bundled or separate from other property insurance coverage (e.g., flood and fire insurance are frequently bundled together).</p> <div></div> <p>Each style has its own pros and cons, and each exists in its region for a variety of reasons. Here is a quick look at the four types.</p> <p>Flood poses risk to property and productivity on every continent, and most developed countries have flood insurance available to mitigate that risk.&nbsp;However, everywhere you go, the flood insurance market is different.</p> <p>There are four principle types of flood insurance models around the world, differentiated by who backs the insurance (government or private markets), and whether it’s bundled or separate from other property insurance coverage (e.g., flood and fire insurance are frequently bundled together).</p> <div> <img src="https://www.intermap.com/hs-fs/hub/395294/file-2128807513-jpg/Blog/insitepro_compare_chart.jpg?width=566&amp;height=518&amp;name=insitepro_compare_chart.jpg" alt="insitepro_compare_chart" width="566" height="518" style="width: 566px; display: block; margin: 0px auto;"> </div> <p>Each style has its own pros and cons, and each exists in its region for a variety of reasons. Here is a quick look at the four types.</p> <p></p> <p><strong>Bundled flood insurance, backed by private markets.</strong></p> <p>In this market model, flood insurance is basically included with your insurance policy — whether you want it or not. Insurers add the flood coverage onto all policies, thus maximizing the risk pool (which keeps costs low), diversifying risk across all the perils together (which also removes the attribution problem [“What caused the damage?”]), and ensuring solid penetration into the market. This is the U.K. model, and is also used in countries like Hungary and China.&nbsp;It is a very effective system for the success of flood insurance, offering wide coverage to property owners at affordable prices while ensuring the insurance industry remains not just solvent, but profitable.</p> <p><strong>Bundled flood insurance, backed by government.</strong></p> <p>This is the socialized version of the U.K. model, where the government administers mandatory coverage for flood and other perils on all property insurance policies. The French and Spanish systems are the most predominant examples of this system. The insurance policies are still written and sold by private insurance companies, but in this model, the state maintains a pool of capital by collecting a portion of all premium collected to back the policies in the case of claims. This system is a secure market for insurers to operate, and is thus attractive to the industry. Another characteristic of this system is that as development of land continues, and catastrophes increase in frequency, the state is incented to ensure the risk of natural catastrophe is minimized, by defending rivers or limiting development in flood zones.</p> <p><strong>Optional flood insurance, backed by private markets.</strong></p> <p>Known as the German model, Germany, Austria, and South Africa carry this system, in which insurers depend upon policy holders deciding to insure their property for flood. This is the most laissez-faire of the systems, but as with any insurance market where coverage is optional, the problem arises from the market being concentrated on the high-risk segment only. Prices are hard to keep low if claims are likely on the majority of policies sold, which limits penetration and doesn’t offer wide coverage for the society. A possible reason for this is the belief in these countries that flooding and other potential catastrophes should be taken into account by property owners when they build/purchase their buildings.</p> <p><strong>Optional flood insurance, backed by government.</strong></p> <p>This is the U.S. model, known as the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), implemented by FEMA. As with the German model above, this system struggles under the concentration of policies in high-risk areas. Unlike the German model, the NFIP is subject to political pressure to maintain prices lower than actuarial prices, leading to enormous shortfalls of capital ($17.5B over the 40 year life of the NFIP through 2008). A further weakness of all optional systems is that they are over-reliant on the quality of flood maps for risk designation. Typically in the U.S., half of the flood losses occur outside designated risk areas, of which 1% was insured for flood, meaning enormous amounts of property subject to flood risk are uninsured.</p> <p><strong>Countries with nascent flood insurance.</strong></p> <p>There are a handful of developed countries that do not yet have fully implemented flood insurance markets. Developing nations begin to have flood insurance markets as their property and productivity become valuable enough to insure. Other developed countries, such as Canada, don’t have flood insurance due to assorted market conditions or lack of demand. In 2010, the city of Winnipeg was the site of a pilot project to try introducing flood insurance to Canada, but it was canceled as only 30 policies were sold. It remains to be seen what system these countries with emerging flood insurance markets will eventually implement.</p> <p>Each country has its own system of flood risk that is based on local conditions and history. Some are demonstrably more effective than others, but in every case it’s a combination of factors that determines how flood insurance is bought and sold. The only constant among all systems is that they are changing and evolving to always better fit the market and the natural catastrophes as they happen.</p> <p><a class="cta_button" href="https://www.intermap.com/cs/ci/?pg=dc72b7ee-5df3-48a7-9606-b9cddbda4799&amp;pid=395294&amp;ecid=&amp;hseid=&amp;hsic="><img class="hs-cta-img " style="border-width: 0px; /*hs-extra-styles*/; " alt="Flood Risk Score is a solution" src="https://no-cache.hubspot.com/cta/default/395294/dc72b7ee-5df3-48a7-9606-b9cddbda4799.png"></a></p> <img src="https://track.hubspot.com/__ptq.gif?a=395294&amp;k=14&amp;r=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.intermap.com%2Frisks-of-hazard-blog%2Fflood%2Finsurance%2Fmodels%2Faround%2Fthe%2Fworld&amp;bu=https%253A%252F%252Fwww.intermap.com%252Frisks-of-hazard-blog&amp;bvt=rss" alt="" width="1" height="1" style="min-height:1px!important;width:1px!important;border-width:0!important;margin-top:0!important;margin-bottom:0!important;margin-right:0!important;margin-left:0!important;padding-top:0!important;padding-bottom:0!important;padding-right:0!important;padding-left:0!important; "> Flood Modeling Private Flood Risk Scoring Wed, 09 May 2018 15:52:25 GMT ivan@intermap.com (Ivan P. Maddox) https://www.intermap.com/risks-of-hazard-blog/flood/insurance/models/around/the/world 2018-05-09T15:52:25Z